Both insects and plant pathogens interfere with production, causing billions of dollars in losses worldwide oerke, 2005. Artificial chromosome formation in maize zea mays l. Corn is the most efficient plant for capturing the energy of the sun and converting it. Product extraction rates from dehulling whole grain. Size dependent effects of antifungal phytogenic silver nanoparticles on germination, growth and biochemical parameters of rice oryza sativa l, maize zea mays l and peanut arachis hypogaea l.
Genes or major qtl for resistance to maize dwarf mosaic virus mdmv, sugarcane mosaic virus scmv, wheat streak mosaic virus wsmv, maize mosaic virus, maize streak virus, high plains virus and. February 21, 2020 the usdaagricultural research service carried out a water productivity field trial for irrigated maize zea mays l. Usdaars colorado maize water productivity dataset 20082011 metadata updated. Outside the zea genus, the closest wild r elatives are from the genus tripsacum. Maize is not only a major cereal crop in the present day world but it. Usdaars colorado maize water productivity dataset 2008.
Our perceptions and conceptions regarding the roles and importance of maize to ancient economies is largely a product of scientific research on the plant itself. Family poaceae on the properties of soil perera, k. Patterns of dna sequence polymorphism along chromosome 1. It still grows in the wild as an annual in mexico and guatemala. The annual teosinte variety called zea mays mexicana is the closest botanical relative to maize. Maize is very essential either for the human food or animal feeding and a common ingredient for industrial products. Christopher colombo encounters that maize was cultivated in. A better understanding of the genetic basis of quantitative variation in maize will improve predictive crop genetics. It is therefore necessary to know the genetic characteristics maize usually grown in benin. Maize is also recognized by different synonyms such as zea, corn, silk corn etc. Your donation will ensure that information remains available for free to people from the developing world who need it most.
Springer nature is developing a new tool to find and evaluate protocols. Density on morphophysiological and yield parameters in bali, north west region of cameroon download download pdf. However tassel size and presumably pollen production varies across environments. The name maize is derived from the arawakcarib word mahiz. Integrated, nutrient, management, maize, zea mays abstract. China 2 national key laboratory of crop genetic improvement and national centre of plant gene. Sep, 2014 ishida y, saito h, ohta s, hiei y, komari t, kumashiro t 1996 high efficiency transformation of maize zea mays l. Although a food staple in many regions of the world, most is used for animal feed and ethanol fuel. Pdf physiological and biochemical response of maize zea. Maize zea mays l is the most important and most widely distributed cereal in the world after wheat and rice. Chlorophyll fluorescence as a selection tool for cold. The possibility of using quenching analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence as a selection tool for improving the cold tolerance of maize was investigated in six genotypes differing greatly in the ability to develop a competent photosynthetic apparatus at low temperature.
Successful maize production depends on the correct application of production inputs that will sustain the environment as well as agricultural production. There have been four principal and several minor theories regarding the origin of maize. Grain find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. A study on the impacts of corn cultivation zea mays l. Materials and methods publicly available maize zea mays l. Most is used to make corn ethanol, animal feed and other maize products, such as corn starch and corn syrup. Cell walls play an important role in the structure and morphology of plants as well as stress response, including various biotic and abiotic stresses. You can copy, download or print oecd content for your own use, and you can. The 62nd annual maize genetics meeting will be held on march 1215, 2020, at the sheraton kona, kailuakona, hawai. Effect of integrated nutrient management on yield of maize. Pdf on jan 1, 2018, g b yenge and others published physical properties of maize zea mays l. Based on previous editions produced by cimmyt maize. Is the only cereal, which was grown systematically by american indians.
Growth and yield responses of three sweet corn osf. Maize is a staple food crop for millions of africans. Dating the initial spread of zea mays michael blake introduction 55 temporal frameworks for zea maysearly dispersal 56 direct dating of maize 57 a note on the indirect dating of maize 59 dating the early distribution of zea pollen 60 dating the early distribution of maize phytoliths 63 dating the early distribution of moderatetohigh stable. This mass of roots has been referred to as the root crown trachsel et al. Maize genetics cooperation newsletter online edition. Identification of a maize zea mays chitinase allele.
K department of botany, open university of sri lanka, nawala, nugegoda, sri lanka abstract maize or corn zea mays l. Christopher colombo encounters that maize was cultivated in haiti, where it was named mahiz. Maize seed variety ikom local white were treated to one level of npk 15. Lowole2 1department of agricultural engineering and land planning, sokoine. Many forms of maize are used for food, sometimes classified as various subspecies related to the amount of starch each has. The genetics of virus resistance in maize zea mays l. In egypt, maize is considered as one of the main cereal crops, comes the third after wheat and rice. A genomewide analysis of the cellulose synthaselike csl. Ishs ii international symposium on organic matter management and compost use in horticulture growth and dry matter yield of maize zea mays l.
Maizegdb is a founding member of agbiodata, a consortuim of agriculturerelated online resources which is committed to making agriculturerelated research data fair. While much of the disadvantage of growing maize after maize can be overcome by applying n fertilizer, it is not possible to apply enough n to eliminate completely the yield difference between rotational and continuous maize. The basic concept underlying the principles of integrated nutrient management inm is the maintenance and improvement of soil fertility for sustaining crop productivity both quantity and quality wise. Maize was domesticated from wild teosinte in central america and its cultivation spread throughout the americas by precolumbian civilisations. Shared genetic control of root system architecture between.
The present investigation was carried out to study area, production and productivity trends and growth rates of maize zea mays crop grown in panchmahal region of gujarat state, india for the period 194950 to 200708 based on parametric and nonparametric regression models. Our perceptions and conceptions regarding the roles and importance of maize to ancient economies is largely a product of scientific research on the plant itself, developed for the most part out of botanical research, and its recent role as one of the most important economic. In maize zea mays, the majority of the root mass is found in the top 0. For each locus, we sequenced a common sample of 25 individuals representing 16 exotic landraces and nine u. Contributions of zea mays subspecies mexicana haplotypes to. In addition, there are some fungi that attack maize kernels and produce toxins mycotoxins that are harmful to humans and animals, and cause substantial direct and indirect economic. Tools sequence analysis tools accessed from the genome context view menu use the current genomic region as input. Immature embryos of the maize inbred line b104 were transformed by a. We measured sequence diversity in 21 loci distributed along chromosome 1 of maize zea mays ssp. The identification and mapping of maize genes and quantitative trait loci qtl associated with virus resistance in maize zea mays l. Yielding and growth parameters of maize zea mays l. Introduction corn, commonly known as maize zea mays l.
Maize called corn in some countries is zea mays, a member of the grass family poaceae. Maize zea mays, linnaeus maize is of american origin, and has only been introduced into the old world since the discovery of the new. Maize is thought to have originated 5570 million years ago in what is now central or south america and has since diversified into nearly 10 000 nondomestic relatives. Using zea mays pollen to introduce undergraduate students to the dynamic development of pollen tubes within an introductory biology laboratory curriculum. Although the comprehensive analysis of genes involved in cellulose synthase have been performed in model plants, such as arabidopsis thaliana and rice, information regarding cellulose synthaselike csl genes in maize is extremely limited. I consider these two assertions as positive, in spite of the contrary opinion of some authors, and the doubts of the celebrated agriculturist bonafous, to whom we are indebted for the most complete treatise. Nutritional, medicinal and economical importance of corn. Plants were seeded in widenarrow rows pattern, with wide and narrow rows spaces of 60 and 30 cm, respectively. This research was conducted to better understand if variation in pollen production is due to stress during initiation of specific pollen production components. Maizegdb is a communityoriented, longterm, federally funded informatics service to researchers focused on the crop plant and model organism zea mays. However, little of this maize is eaten directly by humans. An experiment was conducted at the agronomic research area, university of agriculture, faisalabad, during autumn 2011 to determine the response of maize to foliar application of boron under water stress conditions. Jan 09, 2020 update maize b73 reference genome by single molecule sequencing technologies. It is a cereal grain which was first grown by people in ancient central america.
The data indicated that maize has an average of one single nucleotide polymorphism snp every 104 bp between two randomly sampled sequences, a level of. Maize plots were fertilized with 46kgh p as dap and 23kgha n as urea before sowing and, additional 23kgha n was applied. Root zone soil moisture redistribution in maize zea mays. Submitted dec2015 to the emblgenbankddbj databases the b73 maize genome. The leafy stalk of the plant produces pollen inflorescences and separate ovuliferous inflorescences called ears that yield kernels or seeds, which are fruits. Maize, inmfld, extension gap, technological gap, technology index, yield, economics. Figure 1 shows a phylogenetic tree of grass species related to maize. Maize production, economic analysis, peasant farmers. Maize milling technologies food fortification initiative.
This document provides an overview of baseline biological information relevant to risk assessment of genetically modified forms of the species that may be released into the. A field study entitled effect of integrated nutrient management on maize zea mays l. It possesses over 32,000 genes on ten chromosomes with a genome size of 2. Despite decades of research by botanists, molecular biologists, and archaeologists, the origin and early history of maize remain controversial 1 5. A copious quantity of pollen production is desirable from the male parent in hybrid maize zea mays l. Despite this fact, african farmers have been harvesting average grain yield of not more than. Root zone soil moisture redistribution in maize zea mays l. The study was carried out during kharif season of 2014 and. Poaceae update for itis, in cooperation with natureserve, and based on the catalogue of new world grasses database and other sources.
For such characterization, the use of molecular markers provided an opportunity to analyze largescale of maize populations 8 like previously used to study the structure of plants genetic variation 9 10. Lets work together to see more people have access to the crop biotech update cbu and other isaaa materials. Maize is thought to have originated at least 5000 years ago in the highlands of mexico, peru, ecuador, andor bolivia because of the great density of native forms found in the region. Maize is a highly domesticated crop species that does not exist outside of cultivation bonavia, 20.
Zea mays, more commonly referred to as maize, is a member of the grass family poaceae, or true grasses. Application of regression models for area, production and. Influence of different methods of fertilizer application. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators pgrs induces chilling tolerance in shortduration hybrid maize.
Laboratory, greenhouse and field studies were undertaken to investigate the status of cu and zn and to find out whether the addition of these nutrient elements in soils would increase maize grains and yield components and also, remediate their constraints in coastal plain sand derived soil of southeastern nigeria, for optimization of maize zea mays l. It comes after wheat and rice in terms of world importance. Zea mays maize has the highest worldwide production of all grain crops, yielding 875 million tonnes in 2012. Maize simple english wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Functional uses cosmetic ingredient for skin conditioning. It is now the third most important cereal crop in the world. Alphabetical list of crops with botanical name and crop code crop name botanical name icc code previous.804 685 704 778 1003 1276 900 1312 699 1395 10 48 962 775 351 452 1167 1438 1238 676 68 51 25 1129 922 506 1019 603 229 679 782 767 574 261